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March 29, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo

Nice Article On Metacognition

I’ve written and shared many articles on metacognition and its use in the classroom (see Best Posts On Metacognition).

Cognitive Machine Learning (2): Uncertain Thoughts is a post at The Spectator which talks about, and defines, metacognition in slightly different ways than I’ve seen in other places.

I think you’ll find it interesting. Here’s an excerpt:

October 12, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

“Metacognition Helps Students ‘Understand Their Gaps & How To Close Them'”

Metacognition Helps Students ‘Understand Their Gaps & How To Close Them’ is the headline of the fourth, and final, post in my Education Week Teacher series on the topic.

It includes answers from Howard Pitler, Tan Huynh, Dr. Saundra Yancy McGuire,John Larmer, Mike Janatovich, Matt Townsley, Thomas Armstrong and Anna Crowe.

Here are some excerpts:








I’m adding the series to The Best Posts On Metacognition.

October 11, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

Guest Post: What Is Metacognition

by Anna Crowe

“When the mind is thinking, it is talking to itself.” Plato

Last week when I read  Larry Ferlazzo‘s question  “[W]hat is metacognition , and how do we teach it?” my immediate response was: ”it is thinking about thinking, and it is what we as teachers try to do all the time”.  Immediately I was irritated with myself because while my response was pragmatic at best, it would be unhelpful if I was explaining this to the student teachers that I educate (novices) – I know this from experience. The parsimony of my response comes from reading and thinking about the work of people (experts) far more knowledgeable and experienced than I am in metacognition, and who are this able to distil the meaning so clearly.

Many years ago, I started teaching high school Biology, as a practising scientist with some content knowledge and little formal education training  –  because of this,  I always had to analyze how I understood what I wanted to teach before I taught a class. I then framed my lessons according to how I made sense of the knowledge or skills I needed to teach.  On reflection sometimes my students learned what I hoped they would learn, and sometimes I was less successful – then, I had to think again, and differently – metacognition in action.  From this perspective  I consider metacognition to be knowing (awareness of) when and how to use what (relevant/appropriate) knowledge.  Metacognition is therefore an integral part of learning and is both personal and contextual. I think we teach metacognition by modelling it when and how we teach and interact with our students – provided we are explicit about what we are doing and why we are doing it.

One of my favourite ways of modelling metacognition is using Socratic questioning which challenges the accuracy and completeness of students thinking/ reasoning/ arguments. This method not only engages students metacognitively, it helps teachers to identify and address misconceptions  their students might have.  Socrates asked his students six different types of questions, all of which can be easily included in most science classes.   These Socratic questions and examples of some questions a teacher could ask her/his students follow below.

  1. Conceptual clarification questions which get students to think more and deeply about what they are thinking about and the concepts behind their argument or reasoning. For example: What does this mean? Why are you saying that?  What do you know about this?  Can you explain what this means?  How does this relate to what you know?
  2. Questions which probe assumptions makes students interrogate the beliefs which premise their argument of reasoning. For example:  What are your assumptions? How can you verify or disprove your assumptions?  Explain how you arrived at these assumptions?  What would happen if … were true?
  3. Questions which probe rationale, reasons and evidence guide students towards supported arguments or reasons.  For example:  How do you know this? What is the cause of this? Is this good enough reason?  How might this be contested?  What evidence do you have?
  4. Questions about viewpoints and perspectives gets students to argue/reconsider with their position.  For example: What would be an alternative?  What are other ways of looking at this?  Are these alternate ways reasonable?  Why is it the best?  What are the strengths and weaknesses of…? What is a counterargument for…? How could you look another way at this?
  5. Questions that probe implications and consequences help students to determine if their argument/reasoning has logical outcomes and if they make sense or are desirable.  For example: Then what would happen?  What generalizations can you make?  What are you implying?  How does … affect …?  How does … tie in with what we learned before?  Which is the best, and why?
  6. Questions about the question can get students thinking about the original question. For example: What was the point of this question?  Why do you think I asked this question? Am I making sense?  Why not? How does … apply to everyday life?  What else might I ask?

Questions like these can be crafted according to the content and skills that one wants to teach, and are not limited only to argumentation. Many new teachers find questioning demanding to do because students within a class can have differing levels of content knowledge as well a different states of awareness of their own thinking.  In addition, inexperienced teachers and  teachers with limited subject knowledge cannot always predict their student’s response which undermines their confidence to deal with their students responses.   Initially, students do not like being questioned because they find it challenging, and often there is no quick answer. However, in my experience once students become comfortable with this way of teaching, they start to generate their own questions about their own work (self-regulation) and that of others – sometimes including that of their teachers. Students need to learn that there is no such thing a ‘bad’ question,  that making errors is necessary to get to the ‘right’ answer/solution, and that the path to the ‘right’ answer/solution might be different  for each of us.

To model critical (self) awareness students need to see it in action. It must be made obvious that the teacher actually uses such metacognition in real life, and that it is both a useful and used set of techniques/methods  when she/he addresses  issues or solves problems.  Explicitly teaching students how to become openly and consciously familiar with the methods (like questioning)  they use to learn, why and how they use them, and when and how to apply them can help them think more like experts. With practice and guidance students can become better thinkers. Good thinkers regularly ask questions in order to clarify their thinking so that they understand and effectively interact with the world around  them  –  I like to think that this is why I teach.

Once, when a group of my students complained about having to show me drafts of a research  assignment  before they were submitted in final form, I showed them  various drafts  which  had kept when developing  that particular assignment. The students were surprised that I had drafts of my work (they believed teachers were experts, and experts just do things “properly” the first time they do it), that I had kept the drafts (they believed that experts don’t need to reflect on what they have done),  that I was happy to show them what I considered to be imperfect versions of the assignment task (they thought that experts don’t admit that they sometimes don’t know what they are doing), and that I had critiqued my own drafts (they had never really considered  value of self-evaluation).  One student blurted out “ … so you are no better than us” – I quickly replied  “I, too, am human”.  I never again had a problem getting drafts of assignments from this group of students.  Generally the students’ writing became more focused and articulate with each successive draft and they were happy hand in copies of these drafts after completion of the assignment because they could ‘see’ how their writing had improved during the process. These students engaged in their own learning and produced excellent assignments from which I learned lots – two reasons why I never get tired of teaching.

Professionally, in her early career Anna Crowe (PhD) practiced as a scientist and then moved into science education. She has migrated between employment as an educator at high school level and at university level because of her particular research interest in the interface between these two levels education,  especially in South Africa.


October 8, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

“Student Metacognition ‘Needs to be Purposely Developed'”

Student Metacognition ‘Needs to be Purposely Developed’ is the headline of my latest Education Week Teacher column.

In it, Erik M. Francis, Pam Ferrante, Frank Lyman, Kathy Dyer, and Amber Chandler contribute their thoughts on helping our students develop metacognition.

Here are some excerpts:






October 3, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

“Metacognition is a ‘Catalyst for Action'”

Metacognition is a ‘Catalyst for Action’ is the headline of my latest Education Week Teacher column – part Two in a series on metacognition in the classroom.

In it, Dan Rothstein, Mark Estrada, Diane Friedlaender, Bena Kallick, Allison Zmuda, Donna Wilson, and Amy Benjamin answer the question, “What is metacognition and how do we teach it?”

Here are some excerpts:







September 23, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

“What Is Metacognition? Let’s Think About It” Is My New BAM! Radio Show


What Is Metacognition? Let’s Think About It is the title of my latest ten-minute BAM! Radio Show.

Matt Renwick, Laura Robb and Teresa Diaz join me in the discussion, and they have also all contributed written commentaries on the topic for a future Education Week Teacher column.

I’m adding it to All My BAM Radio Shows – Linked With Descriptions.

September 17, 2016
by Larry Ferlazzo

A Look Back: Student Metacognition & Instructional Strategies


Next February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009.

I originally shared this post in 2010. You might also be interested in The Best Posts On Metacognition

I’ve written a lot about Kelly Young, who provides extraordinary training in instructional strategies, plus great curriculum, to schools throughout the United States.

On one of the pages of his Pebble Creeks website, he gives a short overview of the primaryinstructional strategies we use at our school, and at the other ones with whom he works (unfortunately, his website is now off-line).

We recently completed a lesson he developed where students describe each strategy after having spent two months using them. We then have students explain if and how it helps them learn, and then they make a poster out of what they’ve written.

This year, I had my ninth-grade students convert their poster into an essay and post it on our class blog. There are twelve or thirteen essays there now. I always find it interesting to see what students have to say — it helps me see if I have done a good job at helping them see how it’s in their self-interest to do what we do in the class. One of my goals this year was to make a priority of helping students see the “why” behind what we do, so these essays are a good indicator on how successful, or unsuccessful, I’ve been. This kind of metacognition on their part should contribute to their becoming better writers and readers.

Of course, students can always write what they think I want to hear instead of what they really think. But I hope I contribute towards a classroom culture where that isn’t the case.

But I don’t think I can ever know for sure…

Either way, I think the essays are worth a look.

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