Larry Ferlazzo’s Websites of the Day…

…For Teaching ELL, ESL, & EFL

January 23, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
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A Look Back: “New Study Says Teacher-Student Relationship In Fifth Grade Sets Stage For Future Behavior”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post originally appeared in 2016:

A new study has been released saying that having a positive relationship in the fifth-grade with a teacher can have a long-lasting effect on student behavior in future grades.

Positive teacher-student relationships boost good behavior in teenagers for up to 4 years is the headline of a Eureka Report summary of the Swiss study.

Here’s an excerpt:

A-new-study-has-foundggg

Obviously, student-teacher relationships are important in all grades (see The Best Resources On The Importance Of Building Positive Relationships With Students). I do think it’s interesting, though, that the researchers emphasize fifth-grade.

When I was exploring entering the teacher profession, I did a very unofficial survey of about fifty people I knew, asking them what grade during their school career was most memorable and important to them. Fifth grade was the overwhelming response. Those results moved me to prepare to teach that level, though Burbank High School, where I continue to teach now, made me an offer I couldn’t refuse – to teach classes of pre-literate Hmong refugees who had never been in school before. I’ve never regretted my decision.

I didn’t read the actual Swiss study – only the summary. But I do wonder how they ended up focusing on that age group. Could those relationships in other grades result in similar or even great long-term impacts?

It reminded me of the often-quoted finding that third-grade is the key one for reading ability. Other studies have found that there may not be anything really magical about that age for literacy (see Really Interesting Perspective On Study Claiming Third Grade is Pivotal for Readers).

January 22, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
2 Comments

A Look Back: “What My Students Say About Teachers Mispronouncing Their Names”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post originally appeared in 2016:

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I’m a big advocate of teachers making a point to pronounce student names correctly (see The Best Resources On The Importance Of Correctly Pronouncing Student Names).

I always do a lesson on names as part of the Language unit in my IB Theory of Knowledge classes (see The Best Places For Students To Learn About…Their Names) and this year decided to add this question:

Write about a time a teacher mispronounced your name (if that has happened to you) and how it made you feel or about a time a teacher clearly made an effort to learn how to pronounce it and how that made you feel.  You do not have to give the name of your teacher.  If you haven’t had either of these experiences, write about a time you’ve seen a friend have their name mispronounced.  If none of these apply to you, just write that on the paper.

Out of the ninety students in my TOK classes, about a third said they’ve never experienced a problem with teachers mispronouncing their names; another third said they had experienced that problem but it never bothered them; and a third said that it had happened to them and they didn’t like it.

If I am not absolutely confident about how to pronounce a student’s name when I first meet him/her, I ask how it’s pronounced and write it phonetically on my seating chart.  If I think it’s still possible that I might mispronounce it, I apologize in advance, tell them that they deserve to have their name said correctly, and ask them to please correct me.  I usually don’t make the mistake more than once, and students are always respectful in helping me learn from my mistakes.

A third of students is a sizable number.  It’s probable that the percentage is lower in schools where there are fewer students from different ethnicities but, after seeing these responses, I think most readers agree that since this is one action entirely within our control, we should make sure we correctly pronounce student names:

Here are some student comments:

I remember when several teachers mispronounced my name and it made me feel different.  When a teacher tried making an effort in trying to pronounce my name it made me feel like they actually care.

Yes, teachers had made an attempt to correctly pronounce my name when I do inform them that they had mispronounced it.  It made me feel like they are sincere enough to actually want to pronounce it properly, which give me a message that they are showing respect.

Yes, he mispronounced it and it made me feel awkward.

When they make an effort to pronounce my name correctly it makes me feel respected.

Everyday my teachers pronounce my name incorrectly and I feel disrespected.

I didn’t really care if a teacher didn’t pronounce my name right.  But it does feel better when a teacher actually tries to learn your name.

A teacher before mispronounced my name wrong and I got angry because people started repeating it.

My seventh-grade teacher kept on mispronouncing my name and I felt a little bit ashamed.

One of my teachers always mispronounces my name.  It sort of makes me feel sad because I’ve lost part of my identity.  It want to be a soft and kind person, but it’s hard when someone doesn’t pronounce it thoroughly.

It gets on my nerves.  Even when I tell them it’s like they don’t listen.

January 21, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: “Pres. Obama Provides Great Analysis Of Key Organizing Adage: Do You Want To Be Right, Or Effective?”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post originally appeared in 2016, and I thought reposting it today, on his last day in office, would be good timing:

Regular readers know that I was a community organizer for nineteen years, and a key organizing adage goes something like this: Do you want to be right, or do you want to be effective?

I’ve written a lot about that perspective at The Best Posts & Articles About Compromise and at The Best Posts & Articles On Building Influence & Creating Change.

Today, President Obama provided that same analysis as the central part of his commencement speech today at Howard University, and it was excellent.

Here’s a short excerpt:

And-democracy-requires

You can read the entire transcript of his remarks here, and it’s worth the time.

Here’s the video of his speech:

In addition to adding this post to the “Best” lists I’ve previously mentioned, I’ll also be putting it on The Best Commencement Speeches list.

Addendum: Here a good NY Times article about his speech.

January 20, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: Best Resources On Culturally Responsive Teaching

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In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

In early 2016, I published The Best Resources About “Culturally Responsive Teaching” & “Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy” – Please Share More! and have been adding to it since that date.

Among the many useful links in that post, I’d like to highlight a few that are posts in my Education Week Teacher column:

‘Culturally Responsive Teaching’: An Interview With Zaretta Hammond

‘For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood…’: An Interview With Chris Emdin

‘It is Long Past Time to Meet the Needs of Students of Color’ is Part One of a series co-hosted by Django and Travis Bristol at my Ed Week Teacher column.

Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy ‘Increases Student Engagement & Learning’ is Part Two of that series.

In addition, here are a few other related “Best” lists:

A Collection Of Useful Posts, Articles & Videos On Race & Racism – Help Me Find More

The Best Posts On Looking At Our Students Through The Lens Of Assets & Not Deficits

The Best Resources Showing Social Emotional Learning Isn’t Enough

January 19, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: “A Community Organizer’s Definition Of Leadership – How Can It Be Applied To Education?”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post was originally published in 2016:

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See Part Two here.

I’ve written, spoke, and shared a lot about teacher leadership (see The Best Posts, Articles & Videos On “Teacher Leadership”).

Over the years, in my discussion of that topic, I’ve alluded to how I think about leadership through the eyes of my nineteen-year prior career as a community organizer but, perhaps, not in great detail.

Today, I saw a New Yorker article about what passes as the concept of leadership today, Shut Up and Sit Down Why the leadership industry rules.

It prompted me to dust-off my old Masters Thesis on leadership written long ago, which discussed how we organizers for the Industrial Areas Foundation thought about key qualities of leaders, and then looked at a key social change figures from throughout history to see if and how they exhibited those characteristics.

I thought readers might, or might not, find the first chapter of that thesis interesting and, if so, I’d love to hear your thoughts on how it can be applied to education.

I’m publishing it in two posts (with minor edits from the original), with Part Two appearing next week (that is, it will appear unless I get reader feedback telling me that no one is interested 🙂 )….

Chapter 1

Leadership Qualities

What is Leadership?

When I led workshops on leadership for the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF), I often began by asking people what is the “bill of goods” that our dominant culture tries to sell us about leadership and leaders. I ask them to think about what is talked about in the media about political campaigns, rumors of who may run for office and why, and even when they think about people being considered for official leadership positions in their own organizations or congregations. What are the qualities the dominant culture promotes regarding leadership?

Typically, the list people say includes someone who speaks well, is good looking, has degrees, official titles, positions or inheritances (e.g., Cuomo, Kennedy), is a celebrity, or who are workers or volunteers who take responsibility.

There is nothing wrong with these qualities, but in the eyes of community organizing they have nothing to do with the core of leadership—whether someone has followers and can produce these followers. Sometimes you can have the qualities listed above and produce followers, but often you can have these qualities and not have anyone following you.

If these are not the qualities of leadership, then what are they?

Anger

We would say that the most important quality of leadership is anger—good leaders have lots of anger. The word “anger” comes from the old Norse word that means “grief.” Having anger then does not mean having a temper or feeling hate. When we grieve we are feeling a sense of loss. This loss could be for something that was but is no longer, such as a job, a safe neighborhood, a loved one. Or, this loss could be for something that could be but is not—a child who is stuck going to a bad school and therefore will not be able to get a good job, an immigrant who is unable to become legalized.

Anger is connected to this sense of loss. Anger can turn into hate and violence. On the opposite end it can turn into depression and apathy. Ivan Illich says that this kind of depression is connected to a feeling of powerlessness, and that people who feel powerless either kill or die.

In organizing, we are looking for leaders who can balance the two and have the ability to turn “hot” anger into what we call “cold” anger and into a positive force. I first met Carolina Juarez (not her real name), a leader in our local broad-based community organization, when she was very angry about the City Council not approving a program to assist low-income people to purchase their own homes. She told me she was going to go to the next Council meeting and, in her words, “give them a piece of my mind.” I questioned whether that was going to result in anything other than her possibly feeling a little better, and suggested that a community organizing campaign might be more effective. She then helped organize hundreds of people in a six-month campaign, culminating in four hundred people attending a City Council meeting where the Council did indeed approve the homebuyers program. This story illustrates the difference between the two angers.

Memory

In order to grieve for something, you have to have a good memory. The Latin root of the word memory actually means to mourn sorrowfully—to remember your loss. But if we get stuck in memory we can get stuck living in the past. Examples of what results from being stuck in the past include the Nazis and their obsession with the Aryan race and the Ku Klux Klan and their focus on how things were before the Civil War.

Vision

A part of being a good leader is balancing a good memory with having a vision. A leader has to be able to imagine what might be, to transcend previous experiences, to be able to see possibilities outside of what is. The Bible tells the story of a group of men who brought a disabled family member to see Jesus to be healed, but the line into the house to see Jesus was far too long and their was no way they were going to be able to see him. Instead of just giving up, they found a hole in the roof and lowered the disabled man down to be healed. Another story that illustrates this point is the one about the man who was walking down the street and saw a bricklayer beginning work. The man asked the bricklayer what he was doing, and the worker replied, “I’m laying bricks.” The man walked down a few more feet and asked another bricklayer what he was doing. That worker replied, “I am building a wall.” The man walked a few more feet and asked the same question of another worker. He replied, “I’m building a cathedral.”

It is important for a leader to have both—memory and vision—in balance. Nelson Mandala had great reason to be bitter and hateful about the past, but he knew operating out of that hatred would not solve anything. He had a vision for a different type of society. He created the “Truth Commission” where the perpetrators of apartheid would receive amnesty in exchange for a truthful admission of their acts of oppression and an apology. Martin Luther King, in his “I Have a Dream” speech, showed both qualities—memory and vision.

If a person only has vision and no memory, though, they can live in a fantasy. Visionary activists tend to be stereotyped as not grounded and just living “in the world as it should be.” Leaders need to keep the two in tension and in balance. An example of the difficulties that can occur when someone just has vision is when a pastor comes into a new church and immediately begins to change everything. The pastor meets great resistance because he or she has no connection to the institutional memory and has no relationships.

Humor (or, at least, a very refined sense of irony or sarcasm)

Good leaders must have additional qualities. Leaders need to have humor and irreverence in order to balance their anger. There is not a whole of fun in many of the institutions in which we organize, particularly religious congregations and labor unions. In organizing, leaders have to have fun and play. One organizing campaign in which I worked was a push for city subsidies for childcare. Hundreds of us brought baby rattles to the City Council meeting where our proposal was discussed, which led to a headline in the following days newspaper that say, “Council Rattled by Community Group.” Another time several years ago when then California Secretary of State Bill Jones was intimidating Latinos who were trying to vote, we presented him with the “Bull Connor Award” for doing the most to reduce ethnic minority voters since Bull Connor. The award had a huge picture of a Birmingham police officer and his dog attacking an African-American trying to vote in 1963.

Irreverence is essential, but not clownish behavior, such as that frequently exhibited by former wrestler and past Minnesota Governor Jesse Ventura. The opposite of irreverence is self-righteousness, and there are numerous examples of failed leaders who had more than their fair share of that quality (e.g., Presidents Nixon and Carter, Ken Starr).

What do you think so far?

January 18, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: “Zootopia Movies Highlights Importance Of Grit, But Also Its Limitations”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post was originally published in 2016:

I just came back from taking my grandkids to see the new Disney movie “Zootopia.”

Though I agree with other reviewers who say the movie’s message on race and prejudice is a bit muddled, I also have to say that I think it provides an excellent perspective on “grit.”

At the beginning, he movie’s star, Judy the rabbit,  exemplifies the sterotypical belief in grit – she will try, try, try and succeed, and won’t let anything stop her. As the film goes on, however, she finds that her individual grit isn’t enough — she has to deal with additional challenges she faces from the attitudes and prejudices of society at large, and needs advice and assistance from others to ultimately succeed.

This story reflects what I wrote in my Education Week Teacher column titled ‘It’s Time to Change the Conversation About Grit’:

researchers David Yeager, Gregory Walton and Geoffrey L. Cohen have defined [it] as “the fuller formula for success: effort + strategies + help from others.”

The movie’s message is particularly timely in light of very recent cautions from Carol Dweck (Carol Dweck Makes Strongest Statement Yet On Growth Mindset Misuse) and Angela Duckworth (NY Times Reports On Social Emotional Learning Run Amok) about the dangers of viewing Social Emotional Learning as panaceas.

Even with those concerns, I have to admit I also did like the Shakira theme song for the movie, “Try Everything,” and see how that could be used as part of an SEL lesson.

Here are the lyrics to the song, along with four videos:

* The official music video to the movie

* A “lyrics video” of the song

* Two official trailers to the movie

You might also be interested in:

Video: “Better Call Saul” Scene Illustrates The Limitations Of Grit

The Best Video Clips Demonstrating “Grit” – Help Me Find More

January 17, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: “Study Reviews 25 Years Of Research Into What Helps Students Graduate – Here’s What They Found”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post was originally published in 2016:

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Paul Bruno tweeted out a link to an important new study (that is, unfortunately, behind a paywall) titled Factors that Promote High School Graduation: a Review of the Literature, by Jonathan F. Zaff, Alice Donlan, Aaron Gunning, Sara E. Anderson, Elana McDermott, Michelle Sedaca.

I read it, and here’s my summary:

First off, I’d strongly recommend this study be read side-by-side with last year’s report by American’s Promise Alliance, which examined why students drop-out (see New Survey On High School Drop-Outs Is Depressing, If Accurate). I think both studies complement each other – with this new one focused on what helps students stay, while the earlier one targets why they drop-out. They’re similar in many ways and different in a few others.

This new report reviewed:

research from the past 25 years on high school graduation, focusing on longitudinal, US-based studies of malleable factors that predict graduation. Through this systematic search, we identified 12 assets in individual, family, school, peer, and community contexts, which predict high school graduation…

I don’t think anyone is going to be too surprised by what they found.  I’m listing them in the order they are discussed in the study.  However, I don’t believe the researchers list them in order of importance.  I might be wrong on that, but I can’t find anything in the article that suggests there was a strategic plan for what was discussed at the beginning, middle and end:

1. Student motivation, particularly intrinsic motivation: No big surprise to me, especially since I’ve written three books on the topic. Also, see  Best Posts On “Motivating” Students.

2. Student engagement: They identify it as “behavioral (e.g., attending class, completing assignments), emotional (e.g., identification with school, liking school), and/or cognitive (e.g., taking a strategic approach to learning, intellectual curiosity).” See The Best Posts & Articles On Student Engagement.

3. Youth expectations for “attainment”: In other words, do they expect that they are going to college. See The Best Resources For Showing Students Why They Should Continue Their Academic Career.

4. Do students feel that they are in control of their own destiny: “Youth who believe they control their academic outcomes (i.e., internal locus of control) tend to do better in school and persist when they encounter difficulties.” This reminded me of Maria Konnikova’s recent article in The New Yorker where see writes that resilient people see themselves as “the orchestrators of their own fates.” It may also speak to the importance of maximizing the use of choice – see The Best Posts & Articles About Providing Students With Choices.

5. “Parental Academic Involvement”: This includes both parents helping with homework or talking with their kids about school at home, as well as participating in activities at the school itself. See my fifty “Best” lists related to parent engagement here.

6. “Parent-Child Connection”: Do the parents and their children communicate well and regularly with each other?

7. “Positive Peer Norms”: Are students hanging-out with friends who are more likely to graduate or drop-out?

8. “Positive Student-Teacher Relationships”: See The Best Resources On The Importance Of Building Positive Relationships With Students.

9. “Small Schools”: I think big schools can apply this idea through developing Small Learning Communities, as we have done in our school. See The Best Resources For Learning About Small Learning Communities.

10. Participation in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

11. Career and Technical Education opportunities

12: Access To Community-Based “out-of-school” activities like Outward Bound

Obviously, some of those factors are outside of the teacher and school’s control, but we can impact quite a few of them.

What do you think?

January 16, 2017
by Larry Ferlazzo
0 comments

A Look Back: “I Did A Presentation Today On The Concept Attainment Instructional Strategy – Here Are My Materials”

In February, this blog will be celebrating its ten-year anniversary! Leading up to it, I’m re-starting a series I tried to do in the past called “A Look Back.” Each week, I’ll be re-posting a few of my favorite posts from the past ten years.

You might also be interested in:

 A Look Back: Best Posts From 2007 To 2009 

 A Look Back: 2010’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2011’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2012’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2013’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2014’s Best Posts From This Blog

A Look Back: 2015’s Best Posts From This Blog

This post was originally published in 2016:

concept

I’m a big fan of using Concept Attainment in teaching grammar and writing, and have shared many examples in blog posts and in my books. You can see previous posts at The Best Resources About Inductive Learning & Teaching.

I gave a short presentation about it to some of my school colleagues this afternoon. I thought readers might find it useful to see the materials I prepared.

First off, though, here’s a quick description of the strategy that comes from our forthcoming book, Navigating The Common Core With English Language Learners:

Another form of inductive learning we use with ELLs to improve their writing is the use of examples and non-examples, known as Concept Attainment. This strategy, originally developed by Jerome Bruner and his colleagues, involves the teacher identifying both “good” or “Yes” and “bad” or “No” examples of the intended learning objective. As the teacher shares the “Yes” and “No” examples with students, they are encouraged to develop the reasoning which supports why an example is a “Yes” or a “No.” This inductive learning strategy is a great way to teach multiple elements of writing including sentence structure, grammar, development, and organization.

This first example, which includes all examples of student writing (that’s one of the keys to success of this strategy) is focused on teaching when to use “is” and when to use “are.” The paper is put on the overhead, with all sentences except for the first one under “yes” covered. The teacher then uncovers the first “no” example, asks students to think for a minute, talk to a partner, and see if students can figure out why one is under “Yes” and the other under “No.” We can continue this process until students have come to a conclusion. They then re-write the “no” examples correctly and formulate a “rule.”

is and are

The next sheet I shared was the one at the top of this post and is designed to teach when to use “have” and when to use “has.” The same process is used.

Those first two are model for how to use concept attainment to teach simple grammatical concepts.

The next example I used shows how to use it to teach more sophistical grammar and writing strategies, and I previously published those examples in an insanely popular post titled Teachers Might Find My “Concept Attainment – Plus” Instructional Strategy Useful.

That post describes in detail the process I developed and which I call “Concept Attainment – Plus.” Here are sheets I used in the three-step process that is designed to teach the even more sophisticated “I Say, They Say” essay framework, as well as verb tense agreement.

verbtenseone

verbtensetwo

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Lastly, I shared even more sophisticated examples of using Concept Attainment to teach the “PQC” – Point, Quote, Comment and “ABC”- Answer the Question, Back it up, make a Connection. You can find those examples at my post, Here Are Some Examples Of Using “Concept Attainment” In Writing Instruction. My talented colleague, Lara Hoekstra, prepared those examples.

I remain convinced that there are no more effective and engaging instructional strategies to teach grammar, and few others that are equally successful in developing successful writers.

Let me know experiences you’ve had using this strategy in your classroom in the past or in the future….

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