'error 404' photo (c) 2009, Luis Fernando Pienda Mahecha - license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/

Error Correction with ELLs Is Topic Of My Latest BAM! Radio Show

Effective Strategies For ELL Error Correction is the headline of one of my Education Week Teacher columns.

I’ve been doing some research on the controversial issue of error correction (primarily grammar-related) and English Language Learners. In my book, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work, I talk about some of the research. In it, I share my belief in using little overt correction with individual students and, instead, collect examples of student errors and use them in regular classwide inductive learning and game activities (without identifying who made the errors). In addition, I talk about the use of Dialogue Journals and “recasting” student errors.

In my upcoming ELL book, I talk a bit more about the topic, too.

I thought readers might find it useful to see links to some of the research on the topic that’s available online, including ones that take a different perspective on the topic than I do.

Feel free to offer additional suggestions in the comments section, including your own practice and experience with error correction.

Here are my choices for The Best Resources On ESL/EFL/ELL Error Correction:

Dr. John Truscott is well-known for his critiques of over grammar error correction. This page has a number of links to his online papers.

I particularly like his article in The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching.

Principles and Practice In Second Language Acquisition by Stephen Krashen talks a lot about error correction.

How do you deal with fossilized errors and help students improve their accuracy? is a summary of a great ELT Chat.

I always value what EFL teacher Dave Kees has to say about any subject, including error correction.

Error Correction in ESL: Learner’s Preferences is an article from the TESL Canada Journal.

Deciding What and When to Correct is from An ELT Notebook.

This Better Or Worse comic illustrates the dangers of error correction.

Here’s an Error Correction story I’ve previously posted.

Making Mistakes & Error Correction is from TEFL Geek.

Error Correction Preferences in Written Work of Higher Secondary Students: an Evaluation is a good summary of some ESL/EFL/ELL research.

“What are errors and how should we deal with them in our classes?” is a collection of responses from ESL/EFL teachers around the world.

Delta Notes 1: Error Correction is by Lizzie Pinard.

Oral corrective feedback is from the ELT Journal, and gives a pretty good overview of related research.

Correcting writing: 8 practical ideas is from TEFL Reflections.

Teacher talk – Error correction is a video from The British Council.

Error Correction 1 is from The British Council.

Error Correction 2 is from The British Council.

George Chilton – We all make mistakes is from The British Council.

ESL/ELL error correction – Yes, No or Maybe? is my post at the British Council.

Correcting students’ errors is from French Teacher.

Deferred Self-Correction is from TESOL.

Activities for correcting writing in the language classroom is by Cristina Cabal.

Why asking our students to self-correct the errors in their essays is a waste of time… is from The Language Gym.

More on Error Correction is from TESOL.

Error Correction is from the British Council.

‘Quizzifying’ feedback on error – four ways to spice up the correction of your students’ writing is from The Language Gym.

7 Ways to Error Correct is nice infographic from ELT Connect.

My students’ favourite error correction activity is from JellyBeanQueen.

Research Bites: Corrective Feedback – A Meta-Analysis is from Anthony Teacher.

Why marking your students’ books should be the least of your priorities is from The Language Gym and is one of the best pieces I’ve ever read about error correction.

When ELs Make Oral Errors, What Can Teachers do? is from Tan Huynh.

Focused Error Correction – how you can make a time-consuming necessity more effective and manageable is by Gianfranco Conti.

Error correction in the ELT classroom is from Breakout English. I’m not sure I agree with everything in it, but it does make a lot of useful points.

Error Correction is (Still) a Waste of Time is from The Backseat Linguist.

Delayed Error Correction: A Springboard for Teaching

Correct me if I’m wrong is from International House.

“Agentic Feedback” Is A Useful Term – & Practice – For Teachers

Corrective feedback and learner uptake is a classic research paper.

Error Correction By Alice Goldstein

The Effectiveness of Corrective Feedback in SLA: A Meta‐Analysis

Oral Corrective Feedback in Secondary Classrooms is from The Seidlitz Blog.

As always, feedback is welcome.

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